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On the page "Sources, references and copy right", it says how you should refer to the sources you have used. On this page we say something about how can cite correctly.

At UiA, the most common reference style is APA 7th. In literature- and language studies, Chicago is a common reference style. MLA is often used by those studying English or foreign languages. If ypu're not told otherwise, the library recommends that you use APA 7th.

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We recommend that everyone who writes a bachelor or masters thesis use a reference tool. These tools allow you to collect and sort through the sources you use or are planning on using. They also allow you to get an overview of what sources you actually use, or to change reference styles easily from inside your document.

Zotero is a free tool that will show in your tool bar in your word document. From there, you can insert citations, and the program will make your reference list for you.

If you are connected to UiA, you have access to Endnote as a reference tool. The library offers courses in this, and we recommend that you attend. More information can be found under "kursoversikt" to the left.

In zotero, you can chose your working language, including norwegian. If you use Endnote, you have to download a Norwegian reference style. You can download Norwegian APA7th style here. You can download the Norwegian Chicago-style here.

Do you have questions about the use of these programs? Send a mail to your librarian (information on the home page), or drop by the help desk in the library (2. floor in Kristiansand, by the library entrance in Grimstad).

APA 7th

At UiA, we often use APA 7th. This style has the references in parenthesis in the text, and a reference list at the end of the document.

To read more about this reference style, and to find out how to write citations and reference lists, click the link below.


Chicago is a common reference style for those who study or research languages and literature. Chicago consists of two varieties that it is important that you know about. You will usually be told which of the two you are supposed to use.

Author-year is the most common. In this style, the citations are in parenthesis in the text, There is an alphabetised reference list at the end of the document.

Footnotes gives the citation in a footnote, instead of inside the text. There is also a reference list at the end of the document.

To look at how to write citations and reference lists, click the links below. Then click for the correct style.


Modern Language Association (MLA) is a reference style commonly used bu those who study languages, culture og other humanities subjects. Purdue has maade a good guide to how to write your references with MLA. Take a look through the link below.